The metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is a field-effect transistor which is often created by the controlled oxidation of silicon. A MOSFET is a semiconductor device which is most commonly used in power electronics. A semiconductor is composed of a material that doesn’t act as an insulator or a conductor and both of these properties can be controlled. A transistor is a bipolar device that is created by combining a positive and a negative material. It has three terminals: the collector, the emitter, and the base. MOSFETs are bipolar, but metal oxide insulators are added to enhance performance. The terminals in a MOSFET are called the source, the drain, and the gate. “Field effect” describes the method that is used to control the current flowing through the device. In a MOSFET, as the temperature increases, its ability to conduct current decreases. It creates a natural balance because if one device begins to create more current, it will heat up and cause the current to decrease and both devices will level out.
Gate drivers are provided between microcontroller output signals and the power transistors to prevent overheating. There are half-bridge, full-bridge, and three-phase drivers available. Body diodes may be used in configurations such as half-bridges. They can handle large currents, reduce part count, and device cost.
Fast-recovery super-junction MOSFETs are used in high-voltage switching converters because they offer more efficient switching at any given frequency. Gate capacities and die size are reduced, they can be driven with low-current gate drivers, and their output capacity offer lower stored energy and output losses. They are intended for equipment such as solar inverters telecom or data-center power converters and charging stations for electric vehicles.
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